Alice Bailey, channeling spirits, Crosswise, deceiving spirits, doctrines of demons, global religion, Helen Blavatsky, new age, New Apostolic Reformation, new spirituality, spiritual deception, theosophy, United Nations
From Craig at Crosswise, the first of two excellent articles providing background and examining the doctrines of theosophy (new age/new spirituality). As in his other excellent articles, Craig demonstrates the direct links between these false doctrines and those taught in the New Apostolic Reformation, emergent and Purpose Driven movements. In Part II he also examines Eugene Peterson’s blasphemous ‘The Message’, as well as the role of the United Nations in the development of a global, unified false spirituality and religion.
There is much to be gleaned in the comments section of Craig’s articles as well, as there are many regular contributors who ask questions, and further discuss and expand on the article content. My thanks to the Craig for his kind permission to repost in full here.
Misplaced Trust – Part I
First published on December 6, 2010
“I would really render a service if I could show people how I became what I am from what I was. It might be useful to know how a rabid orthodox Christian worker could become a well-known occult teacher.” 
Alice A. Bailey relates the above from a friend’s letter who felt Bailey herself should write an autobiography. Bailey (AAB) wrote, or more accurately, acted as a medium through which Djwhal Khul (Djwal Khul), also known as “Master D. K.,” “The Tibetan,” or simply “D K,” ‘dictated’ his books. These books, all written between 1919 and 1949 (including her own Unfinished Autobiography), are distributed by Lucis Trust. According to Constance Cumbey, these works provide most of the doctrine of the New Age / New Spirituality teachings of today:
“…The esoteric thrusts of the [New Age] Movement as well as the aims of its groups are largely derived from the Alice Bailey books.” 
Brief History of Theosophy
The Bailey material can be seen as an extension of the work begun by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (HPB) who primarily formed the initial doctrine of Theosophy. Blavatsky, along with H. S. Olcott and W. Q. Judge, founded the Theosophical Society of New York City in 1875. Annie Besant was appointed successor to HPB, and, along with C. W. Leadbeater extended Theosophic doctrine. AAB (and husband Foster Bailey) was initially involved in the Theosophical Society but later split with the group . However, clearly, her work is in the same vein; and, Bailey/The Tibetan quotes from both HPB and Besant in her books.
The term theosophy comes from the Greek theosophia (knowledge of divine things; theos, god, and sophia, wisdom, from sophos, wise) and is defined:
1. Any of various philosophies or religious systems that propose to establish direct contact with divine principle through contemplation, revelation, etc. and to gain thereby a spiritual insight superior to empirical knowledge.
2. [often T-] the doctrines and beliefs of a modern sect of this nature that incorporates elements of Buddhism and Brahmanism.
Definition 1 is a general definition for much of esoteric/occult doctrine, while 2 [Theosophy, with a capital ‘T’ – the one of Blavatsky, Besant, Bailey, et al] is a specific sect. Interestingly, the first definition seems to be applicable for Latter Rain  theology and some forms of modern Christian charismaticism with their inherent gnostic beliefs.
From Lucifer Publishing to Lucis Trust
In 1919, AAB hesitatingly began her telephathically generated literary works emanating from “The Tibetan” (Djwhal Khul). She would continue acting as a medium for The Tibetan until her death in 1949. In the early 1920’s she and her husband Foster Bailey founded Lucifer Publishing Company as a vehicle to publish the books. The name was changed in 1925 to Lucis Publishing Company which it remains to this day and, as stated above, these books are all available through Lucis Trust. The Baileys were:
“…serious students and teachers of Theosophy, a spiritual tradition which views Lucifer as one of the solar Angels, those advanced Beings Who Theosophy says descended (thus “the fall”) from Venus to our planet eons ago to bring principle of mind to what was the animal-man. In the theosophical perspective, the descent of these solar Angels was not a fall into sin or disgrace but rather an act of great sacrifice, as is suggested in the name “Lucifer” which means light-bearer.  [emphasis in original]
Obviously, this is a mischaracterization of Lucifer/Satan according to orthodox Biblical Christianity and a redefinition of Revelation 12:3-4, 7-9 as well as Isaiah 14:12-15. In addition, the Theosophic belief in evolution is exposed (“the animal-man”). It’s quite interesting how Lucifer’s rebellion is changed to “an act of great sacrifice.”
Scripture is clear that Satan “masquerades as an angel of light” and that his servants will “masquerade as servants of righteousness” [II Corinthians 11:14-15 NIV] so, we shouldn’t be surprised by the infiltration of this type of thinking within the “Church.” In fact, this is one of the stated aims of the New Age / New Spirituality as explained by AAB/The Tibetan:
“The Son of God is on His way and he cometh not alone. His advance guard is already here and the Plan which they must follow is already made and clear….” 
“[They are] already active in the form of the New Group of World Servers; they are as potent a body of forerunners as has ever preceded a great world Figure into the arena of mankind’s living…” 
“The Christian church in its many branches can serve as a St. John the Baptist, as a voice crying in the wilderness, and as nucleus through which world illumination may be accomplished….”  [all emphasis added]
The “Son of God” and the “great world Figure” of the first and second quotes respectively are referring to the future antichrist. While there are divergent views of the “two witnesses” of Revelation 11, I cannot dismiss the similarity of the above with one of the stated “prophecies” and goals of International House of Prayer’s ”Forerunner Curriculum”:
“God is raising up a generation of end-time messengers like John the Baptist to prepare the way for His Son’s return by boldly proclaiming the gospel of the kingdom to all the nations” 
Regardless of one’s view of the Revelation 11 witnesses, it is clear in verse 11 that they are overcome by the “beast” rather than remaining part of the “victorious Church” contrary to Mike Bickle’s ”Apostolic Premillennialism” belief system.
The Apostle Paul makes it clear that the Day of the Lord [the time of judgment for God’s adversaries contrasted with blessings for His faithful], Jesus Christ’s return, will not come until the rebellion/apostasy occurs first (II Thessalonians 2:1-3) and the “man of lawlessness is revealed” (the antichrist).
9The coming of the lawless one will be in accordance with the work of Satan displayed in all kinds of counterfeit miracles, signs and wonders, 10and in every sort of evil that deceives those who are perishing. They perish because they refused to love the truth and so be saved. 11For this reason, God sends them a powerful delusion so that they will believe the lie 12and so that all will be condemned who have not believed the truth but have delighted in wickedness.
[II Thessalonians 2:9-12 NIV; emphasis added]
Compare this Scripture above with AAB as we pick up where the passage left off:
“…The church must show a wide tolerance, and teach no revolutionary doctrines or cling to any reactionary ideas. The church as a teaching factor should take the great basic doctrines and (shattering the old forms in which they are expressed and held) show their true and inner spiritual significance. The prime work of the church is to teach, and teach ceaselessly, preserving the outer appearance in order to reach the many who are accustomed to church usages. Teachers must be trained; Bible knowledge must be spread; the sacraments must be mystically interpreted, and the power of the church to heal must be demonstrated.”  [underlining from emphasis in original; bolding added]
In taking this last quote and the II Thessalonians Scripture, it seems that healing could well be one of the “counterfeit miracles” of which Paul is referring. Of course, this is not to say the True Church does not heal through the power of the Holy Spirit. Unfortunately, many in charismatic circles put an emphasis on the “power” of “the Spirit” as if the power is theirs’ to wield at will. Yet Scripture is clear that the Holy Spirit disburses gifts as HE determines [I Corinthians 12:11].
Bill Hamon, one of the recognized “fathers” of the “third wave” charismatic movement says:
“Every believer has the ability to manifest the supernatural in a miraculous way….
“In my book, The Day of the Saints, I prophesied what would be many of the truths and ministries… …[including] every saint manifesting the supernatural… In the last several years, we have seen these things happening in the Body of Christ, such as through the increased emphasis of signs, wonders and miracles…” 
Who is bringing the “increased emphasis of signs, wonders and miracles?” Is this the work of the Holy Spirit or is it man-induced? If man-induced, then by what spirit?
The “Master Jesus” and the “Christ” of Lucis
According to the occult teaching of Theosophy, Jesus is also a “light-bearer” having attained the title of “Master” as a result of His extraordinary life and utilization of the “Christ” which was in Him. His example is the one we are to follow in order to attain the status of “Master” ourselves. “Christ” then is the inherent but not yet actualized divinity within all individuals according to the esoteric perspective. This view of “Christ” should be kept in mind as explained in the following:
“There is a growing and developing belief that Christ is in us, as He was in the Master Jesus…”  [underlining from emphasis in original; bolding added]
I’m reminded of a quote from Bill Johnson’s When Heaven Invades Earth in which “Christ” is referred to as “the anointing”:
“…The anointing is what linked Jesus, the man, to the divine…” 
While “Christ” is inside individuals according to Theosophy, the meaning of the term “ the Christ” (and sometimes just “Christ”) can be different depending upon context and is explained in a footnote in the Lucis book The Externalisation of the Hierarchy:
“…The Tibetan has asked me [AAB] to make clear that when he is speaking of the Christ he is referring to His official name as Head of Hierarchy. The Christ works for all men, irrespective of their faith; He does not belong to the Christian world any more than to the Buddhist, the Mohammedan or any other faith. There is no need for any man to join the Christian Church in order to be affiliated with Christ. The requirements are to love your fellowmen, lead a disciplined life, recognize the divinity in all faiths and all beings, and rule your daily life with Love.” 
To be clear, “the Tibetan” is not “the Christ.” He (the Tibetan) is explaining that “the Christ” is the official name of the “Head of Hierarchy” [Jesus of Nazareth, now “Master Jesus,” was the previous incarnation of “Christ” and He will be succeeded by the forthcoming “Christ” or, in actuality, the antichrist empowered by Lucifer]. Keeping this perspective of “Christ,” the “Christ” in the preceding and the following is actually the coming antichrist:
“Christianity will not be superseded. It will be transcended, its work of preparation being triumphantly accomplished, and Christ will again give us the next revelation of divinity….
“…Can there not be revelations of God utterly unprecedented, and for which we have no words or adequate means of expression? The ancient mysteries, so shortly to be restored, must be re-interpreted in the light of Christianity, and readapted to meet modern need….”  [emphasis added]
And, with the substitution of “Christ” for antichrist (empowered by Lucifer), one can see how confusion can quickly develop as to who this “Christ” is to the unsuspecting true Christian. Also, note how the Apostle Paul and theologians are denigrated:
“The wonder of that Life lived two thousand years ago is still with us and has lost none of its freshness; it is an eternal inspiration, hope, encouragement and example…. The words He spoke were few and simple, and all men can understand them, but their significance has largely been lost in the intricate legalities and discussions of St. Paul, and the lengthy disputations of theological commentators since He lived and left us – or apparently left us.
“Yet – today Christ is nearer to humanity than at any other time in human history; He is closer than the most aspiring and hopeful disciple knows, and can draw closer still if what I here propose to write is understood and brought to the attention of men everywhere. For Christ belongs to humanity, to the world of men, and not only to the churches and faiths throughout the world.”  [emphasis added]
So, according to the Theosophic view, “Master Jesus” is part of the “Spiritual Hierarchy” along with Master D.K. (The Tibetan) among others with the forthcoming “Christ” (empowered by Lucifer) as the near-future “Head of the Hierarchy.” The intent as evident in the title of the book, The Externalisation of the Hierarchy, is to take the current “internal” spiritual hierarchy (in the spirit realm) and “externalize” it on the physical plane. In other words, the goal is to take the demons from the spirit world and bring them physically to earth ushering in the antichrist and the end of the age!
Some theologians are of the view that Revelation 12:3-4 and 12:7-9 are describing the same event: Satan’s initial rebellion and his expulsion from Heaven. However, I hold these are separate and distinct accounts with verses 3-4 depicting the initial rebellion while verses 7-9 are prophesying a future event in which Satan and his demons are thrown from the heavenly realms and confined to earth during the Tribulation period. Taking the esoteric views of the Bailey books in conjunction with Scripture, much like a negative to its corresponding photo, lends credence to this belief. Further, passages such as Job 1:6-7; 2:1-2 and Ephesians 6:12 show that Satan had access to Heaven and still currently has access to the heavenly realms:
“12 For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the powers of this dark world and against spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms.” [NIV; emphasis added]
From Pisces to Aquarius
A central tenet of the Lucis books is the Zodiac. Accordingly, we are currently in the Piscean Age (old age) which will very soon give way to the Aquarian Age (New Age). The Piscean Age is referred to as the Christian Age or “old order”; so it follows logically that the Age of Aquarius – of “soul consciousness,” “divine awareness” and “capacity for abstraction” (idealism) – will be the post-Christian Age.
With the Piscean Age coming to a close and the concurrent dawning of the Age of Aquarius, there are those who are fully on board with the New Age (although I believe most do not fully understand the implications) and those who are clinging to the old (I proudly call myself an old ager). The Piscean Age is part of the “fourth kingdom in nature” while the Aquarian Age is the “fifth kingdom in nature.” According to this esoteric teaching, this “fifth kingdom” is also the “kingdom of God on earth.” To enter the kingdom of God one must have the “over-shadowing” or be “soul-controlled” – in other words: be demonically possessed:
“Emphasis should be laid on the evolution of humanity with peculiar attention to its goal, perfection. …man in incarnation, by the indwelling and over-shadowing soul…. …The relation of the individual soul to all souls should be taught, and with it the long-awaited kingdom of God is simply the appearance of soul-controlled men on earth in everyday life and at all stages of that control. …The fact will appear that the Kingdom has always been present but has remained unrecognized, owing to the relatively few people who express, as yet, its quality….”
I’m reminded again of the II Thessalonians passage in which God Himself will send a “strong delusion” to those who “perish because they refused to love the truth and so be saved.”
The Piscean Age is also viewed as one of selfishness rather than the “inclusiveness” of the Aquarian Age. Therefore, individual salvation, for example, is viewed as being exclusivist and thus, an impediment to the New Age in which “group initiations” will be done en mass. In fact, the only recognized “sin” by Theosophy/Lucis and New Age/New Spirituality is the “sin of separatism”:
“First, the active energy of loving-understanding will mobilise a tremendous reaction against the potency of hate. To hate, to be separate, and to be exclusive will come to be regarded as the only sin, for it will be recognised that all the sins as listed, and now regarded as wrong, only stem from hate or from its product, the anti-social consciousness….” 
“…Yet sin and evil do exist on Earth. We are told by the Tibetan that the only true evil is the sin of separatism. 
Accordingly, the Aquarian Age will have no room for monotheistic religions – Christianity, Judaism and Islam – as they are viewed as detracting from the furtherance of a one world religion and one world government since they are exclusivist by nature. The Lucis works are also anti-semitic. The Jewish race is seen as “perpetuating the Jewish dispensation” and thereby remaining in the Age of Aries rather than growing in the “Christian dispensation” – the Age of Pisces.
There are certain areas of evil in the world today through which these forces of darkness can reach humanity. What they are and where they are I do not intend to say. I would point out, however, that Palestine should no longer be called the Holy Land; its sacred places are only the passing relics of three dead and gone religions. The spirit has gone out of the old faiths and the true spiritual light is transferring itself into a new form which will manifest on earth eventually as the new world religion. To this form all that is true and right and good in the old forms will contribute, for the forces of right will withdraw that good, and incorporate it in the new form. Judaism is old, obsolete and separative and has no true message for the spiritually-minded which cannot be better given by the newer faiths; the Moslem faith has served its purpose and all true Moslems await the coming of the Imam Mahdi who will lead them to light and to spiritual victory; the Christian faith also has served its purpose; its Founder seeks to bring a new Gospel and a new message that will enlighten all men everywhere. Therefore, Jerusalem stands for nothing of importance today, except for that which has passed away and should pass away. The “Holy Land” is no longer holy, but is desecrated by selfish interests, and by a basically separative and conquering nation.
The task ahead of humanity is to close the door upon this worst and yet secondary evil and shut it in its own place. There is enough for humanity to do in transmuting planetary evil without undertaking to battle with that which the Masters Themselves can only keep at bay, but cannot conquer.The handling of this type of evil and its dissipation, and therefore the release of our planet from its danger, is the destined task of Those Who work and live in “the center where the Will of God is known,” at Shamballa; it is not the task of the Hierarchy or of humanity. Remember this, but remember also that what man has loosed he can aid to imprison; this he can do by fostering right human relations, by spreading the news of the approach of the spiritual Hierarchy, and by preparing for the reappearance of the Christ. Forget not also, the Christ is a Member of the Great Council at Shamballa and brings the highest spiritual energy with Him. Humanity can also cease treading the path to the “door where evil dwells” and can remove itself and seek the Path which leads to light and to the Door of Initiation. [emphasis added]
So, according to The Tibetan (DK), the “door where evil dwells” is in the “three dead and gone religions” of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Keep this in mind as you read the fourth stanza of The Great Invocation – the prayer of the New Age disciple:
From the centre which we call the race of men
Let the Plan of Love and Light work out
And may it seal the door where evil dwells.
It has pompously been declared that The Great Invocation, “if given widespread distribution, can be to the new world religion what the Lord’s Prayer has been to Christianity and the 23rd Psalm has been to the spiritually minded Jew.” For more on the significance of The Great Invocation according to the New Spirituality / New Age see this section on the inplainsite.org website.
This war against the monotheistic religions will be fought with “mental weapons” and in the “emotional realm.” Of course, we know that our enemy is not of flesh and blood but rather spiritual forces (Ephesians 6:12):
“Years ago I said that the war which may follow this one would be waged in the field of the world religions. Such a war will not work out, however, in a similar period of external carnage and blood; it will be fought largely with mental weapons and in the world of thought; it will involve also the emotional realm, from the standpoint of idealistic fanaticism. This inherent fanaticism (found ever in reactionary groups) will fight against the appearance of the coming world religion and the spread of esotericism. For this struggle certain of the well-organized churches through the conservative elements (their most powerful elements), are already girding themselves… …Fanaticism, entrenched theological positions, and materialistic selfishness are to be found actively organised in the churches in all continents and of all denominations…
“The coming struggle will emerge within the churches themselves; it will also be precipitated by the enlightened elements who exist in fair numbers already, and are rapidly growing in strength through the impact of human necessity. The fight will then spread to thinking men and women everywhere who — in a protesting revolt — have denied orthodox churchianity and theology.” [emphasis added]
The goal of infiltrating the churches to destroy from within seems to be well underway. As but one example, Rick Warren, who is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), on the advisory board of Tony Blair’s ecumenical Faith Foundation, and who is even recognized as a New Age guru among New Agers, has stated that fundamentalism will be:
”…one of the big enemies of the 21st century.”
“Muslim fundamentalism, Christian fundamentalism, Jewish fundamentalism, secular fundamentalism – they’re all motivated by fear. Fear of each other.” 
I’m really annoyed when perfectly good words are redefined to further an agenda. In my old Webster’s dictionary the word “fundamentalism” is defined:
1. Orthodox religious beliefs based on a literal interpretation of the Bible (e.g., complete acceptance of the story of creation as given in Genesis and rejection of the theory of evolution) and regarded as fundamental to the Christian faith.
2. the movement among some American Protestants emphasizing this belief; opposed to modernism. 
Does Warren have a problem with that? Well, obviously, he’s not opposed to modernism; but, it seems his use of the term ”fundamentalism” is more one of extremism. He’s bought into the negative stereotype of the term as portrayed in the liberal media. Personally, I’m quite fine with both definitions above; but, I’m vehemently opposed to both extremism and modernism. However, it’s apparent that Warren does not mind watering down Christianity in his bid for ecumenism; and, in so doing, he marginalizes the Faith.
Below is one of a number of full page advertisements posted in newspapers around the world on April 25, 1982. This particular one comes from the Los Angeles Times and is found on the back of Constance Cumbey’s book The Hidden Dangers of the Rainbow (see 3rd footnote below for a full citation).
This obviously refers to the coming Antichrist, not Jesus Christ.
 Lucis Trust website. About Alice Bailey. <http://www.lucistrust.org/en/books/alice_bailey_books/about_alice_bailey> par 3; as accessed 12/05/10
 Lucis Trust main page. <http://www.lucistrust.org/> as accessed 12/05/10
 Cumbey, Constance. The Hidden Dangers of the Rainbow. 1983, rev. ed., Huntington House, Shreveport, LA; p 55. This resource is also available as a free download at <https://public.me.com/cumbey> “HIDDEN DANG…ND COVER.pdf” p 39
 Theosophical Society home page <http://www.theosociety.org/> par 1; as accessed 12/05/10
 Kazlev, M. Alan, Kheper website Adyar-Theosophy School. <http://www.kheper.net/topics/Theosophy/Adyar.html> par 1; as accessed 12/05/10
 Lindsay, Phillip. Alice A. Bailey, H.P. Blavatsky and Helena Roerich. <http://www.esotericastrologer.org/EAauthorEssays/AABHPBHR.htm> copyright 2004; as accessed 12/05/10
 McKechnie, Jean L. Webster’s New Twentieth Century Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged, 1983; Simon and Schuster; p 1893
 Wikipedia Latter Rain (post-World War II Movement), <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latter_Rain_(post-World_War_II_movement)>
 Lucis, Op.cit. About Alice Bailey. par; as accessed 12/05/10
 Lucis Trust website. The Esoteric Meaning of Lucifer. <http://www.lucistrust.org/en/arcane_school/talks_and_articles/the_esoteric_meaning_of_lucifer> as accessed 12/05/10
 Bailey, Alice A. The Reappearance of the Christ. 1948, Lucis Trust, 9th printing 1979 (4th paperback ed.); Fort Orange Press, Albany, NY; p 60
 Bailey, Alice A. The Externalisation of the Hierarchy. 1957, Lucis Trust, renewed 1985, 8th printing 1989 (4th paperbook ed.) ; Fort Orange Press, Albany, NY; p 598
 ibid. p 510
 International House of Prayer website. IHOPU Forerunner Curriculum. <http://www.ihopkc.org/ihopu/schools/forerunner-curriculum/> 2013 International House of Prayer; bullet point 1; as updated/accessed 03/25/13
 International House of Prayer website; Forerunner bookstore. Apostolic Premillennialism (CD Single). <http://store.ihop.org/store/product/4236/Apostolic-Premillennialism-%28CD-Single%29/> Product Description; as accessed 12/05/10
 Bailey, Op.cit. Externalisation. pp 510-511
 Elijah List website; Hamon, Bill. 2008 is the beginning of the Third and Final Apostolic Reformation. <http://www.elijahlist.com/words/display_word/6195> February 25, 2008; par 1, 2; as accessed 12/05/10
 Bailey, Op.cit. Externalisation. P 592
 Johnson, Bill. When Heaven Invades Earth. 2003; Destiny Image, Shippensburg, PA; p 79
 Bailey, Op.cit. Externalisation. P 558
 Bailey, Alice A. From Bethlehem to Calvary. Copyright 1937 by Alice A. Bailey, renewed 1957 by Foster Bailey; Lucis Trust, 4th paperback ed., 1989; Fort Orange Press, Albany, NY; pp 20-21
 Bailey, Op.cit. Externalisation. pp 592-593
 ibid. pp 593-594
 Bailey, Alice A. Discipleship in the New Age I. Copyright 1972 by Lucis Trust [1st printing 1944], 8th printing 1972 (paperback); Fort Orange Press, Albany, NY; pp 611, 633
 ibid. p 785
 Bailey, Alice A. The Destiny of the Nations. Copyright 1949 by Lucis Trust; 5th printing, 1974 (2nd paperback ed.); Fort Orange Press, Albany NY; pp 112-113
 Bailey, Op.cit. Bethlehem. pp 184-186
 Bailey, Op.cit. Externalisation. p 588
 Bailey, Alice A. The Rays and the Initiations. Copyright 1960 by Lucis Trust; 5th printing, 1976 (2nd paperback ed.); Fort Orange Press, Albany, NY; p 109
 Bailey, Op.cit. Discipleship. p 76
 Lucis Trust website. The Use and Significance of the Great Invocation. <http://www.lucistrust.org/en/service_activities/the_great_invocation__1/the_use_and_significance_of_the_great_invocation> as accessed 12/06/10
 Lucis Trust website. Descent and Sacrifice. <http://www.lucistrust.org/en/arcane_school/talks_and_articles/descent_and_sacrifice> par 8; as accessed 12/06/10
 Bailey, Op.cit. Rays. pp 534, 548, 705-706
 ibid. p 548
 ibid. pp 754-755
 Lucis Trust website. The Great Invocation. <http://www.lucistrust.org/invocation/> 4th stanza; as accessed 12/06/10
 Lucis, Op.cit. Use and Significance.
 Bailey, Op.cit. Externalisation. pp 453-454
 Nussbaum, Paul The Philadelphia Inquirer. The Purpose-Driven Pastor <http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-religion/1555425/posts> last 2 par; as accessed 12/06/10
 McKechnie, Op.cit. p 742